False dichotomy - to see only the extremes of a spectrum; to see only black and white with no shades of grey.
Common example: "If you think that welfare is beneficial to society, then you must be some kind of communist!" It is possible to be a political moderate and believe that welfare is good under certain circumstances.
Evolution/creationism Example 1: Some creationists say that ancient hominids are just human fossils or they are ape, no in between. To them it doesn't matter that some human fossils display larger than modern teeth set in a projecting jaw, a brain size well below the human range, a small chin, or heavy brow ridges. They claim that even today you can see a difference amongst humans in terms of size and shape so why would it be any different in the past. Some of the ape fossils show evidence of being bipedal, with brains larger than that of apes today, and human-like teeth. Had creation occurred would it not be very evident which are human fossils and which are ape?
Evolution/creationism Example 2: Another creationist argument is that if evolution does exist, and man evolved from unicellular organisms, invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles why are there still amoebae, jellyfish, and certain fish that are "not going through evolutionary development". An example that is often used is the long-fin lungfish coelacanth (left) which was thought to be extinct for millions of years and was then found in 1939 of the eastern coast of South Africa. There was little evidence of significant evolution occurring to this species at all since the Cretaceous. Therefore, citing this example creationists claim that evolution does not exist. The false dichotomy here is assuming that proponents of evolution claim that all species change all the time. They do not, but point out that certain species are well adapted to their environment and has not needed to evolve significantly in order to survive. However, some differences are recognizable. Although significant evolution of the coelacanth taxon has not occurred close comparison of fossil and living species of coelacanth show that there are distinct differences that are not superficially obvious (left).