Surrounding Environment

Hydrothermal vents exist on the bottom of the ocean floor.  The surrounding environment is very harsh.  Pressures at hydrothermal vents are extremly high.  Humans would be crushed to death at the pressures that vent fauna live in.  Highly specialized equipment is required to explore the ocean floor.

Vent Diaroma Courtesy of NOAA

The water coming out of a sea water vent is typically has a temperature in the range of 300C to 400C.  The thermal gradient from the edge of the vent to the base of the vent can range from 10 C to 400 C.  Currents can cause temperatures to shift meaning that the surrounding environment's temperatures fluctuate.

There is no light at the bottom of the ocean.  Life survives by chemosynthesis instead of photosynthesis.

The water coming out of a hydrothermal vent is typically contains toxic heavy metals that clog mouthparts and gills.  As well hydrogen sulphide is lethal to the creatures that inhabit black smokers.

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