The Billings, Carlsbad and Queenston Fromations are included together because
they consist of basically dark shaley rock (Billings) which becomes interbedded
with calcareous siltstone and silty limestone (Carlsbad), and then becomes
an interbedded red to greenish gray siltstone and shale (Queenston). These
fossilized rocks were formed in an anoxic marine environment (lack of oxygen),
and are characterized by fossils made of pyrite (see Fossils).
In addition to the fossils indicated in this composition, the Billings Formation
contains gratolites; the Carlsbad Formation contains silty bioclastic limestone
and shale with crinoids, brachiopods and bryozoans.
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