Example 2

This problem concerns aquatic prey capture in salamanders. There is divergent head morphology across six families of salamanders. Some families grouped together on both the kinematic and morphological levels, others diverged on both levels. Some converged on one level but not the other. Therefore, although there is some convergence of form and function, it is impossible to predict for which taxa they are linked.

The results of an analysis of head morphology(shaded plane) and functional or kinematic variation in aquatic feeding(top plane) in six families of salamanders. The six families are Ambystomidae(A), Cryptobranchidae(C), Dicamptodontidae(D), Proteidae(N), Amphiumidae(P), and Sirenidae(S). Note that A and N are divergent morphologically but share a common region of kinematic space, while S and D are similar morphologically but divergent kinematically.

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