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The Pleistocene (1.64-0.01 mya)

        The Pleistocene epoch was marked by dramatic climate fluctuations (MacFadden 1994), most notably the periodic advance and retreat of glaciers from the Arctic over the northern hemisphere (WGBH 2001). In the northern latitudes, some areas had ice over a kilometer thick, which had a severe cooling effect on the surrounding areas (WGBH 2001).  The Pleistocene also saw the migration of humans to the Americas (MacFadden 1994).  

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