Allen, K.C., Briggs, Derek, "Evolution and the Fossils Record", Belhaven press, London, 1989, pg 99-119. (photo: Evolution of corals, pg. 111)

Campbell, Neil, A., "Biology", The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Don Mills, Ont., 1993, Chapter 26. (photo: The role of corals in reef formation & Definition and Classification & Reproduction & Feedin and Nutrition, pgs. 1068, 604, 607, 965)

Chadwick, Douglas, H., "Coral in Peril", National Geographic, January 1999, Vol. 195, No. 1, pg. 31-37. (photo: The Great Barrier Reef, pg 35)

Domm, Steve, "Corals of the Great Barrier Reef", Ure Smith, Sydney, 1976, pg. 111-125,  (photo: What is a reef & The origins of the Great Barrier Reef & Biome Description, pg 121, 121, 113)

Kaplan, Eugene, H., "Coral Reefs", Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1987, pg 96-120.

Patterson, T. "Evolutionary Paleoecology" (photo:Ecology,

Sorokin, Y., I., "Coral Reef Ecology", Springer, New York, 1995, pg 283-295.

Thompson, Ida, "National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Fossils", Alfred A. Knof, New York, 1995, pg. 772 (photo: Rugosa & Tabulata & Scleractinia, pg 772)