Size Related Bias in planktonic Foraminifera

There are several biases which should be addressed in the paper by Arnold et al. (1995). First, a complete cladistic model of the foraminifera was not available. In some cases, the areas of uncertainty included origins of new lineages (Arnold et al., 1995). Due to this, the authors had to be careful when making conclusions based on the phylogenetic groups. Secondly, it is possible that the lineages may have been inappropriately split into separate groups when in actual fact they may never have been separate species. According to the Arnold et al. (1995) this does not invalidate their results, but no reason is given as to why.

Globigerinoides cyclostomus (image by Natalia Vazquez Riveros)