These studies in complexity science have concluded that in order to produce creative, innovative, continually changeable behaviour (i.e. organismal evolutionary behaviour) systems must operate far from equilibrium where they are driven by negative and positive feedback to paradoxical states of stability and unstability, predictability and unpredictability. The transformational process is one of internal, spontaneous self organization amongst the the agents of a system, provoked by instability and potentially leading to emergent order.


Several viewpoints have been proposed about system dynamics that differ from those above.

Contradiction, paradox & non equilibrium:

When paradox becomes the central focus, organizations are viewed as non equilibrium systems with dynamics that are essentially disordered, developing through political processes in a dialectical manner, displaying one crisis afer another.

Spontaneous self organization & creative destruction:

In this view, organizations are assumed to be systems, "parts" of larger environmental systems.
They evolve through a process of creative destruction and spontaneous self organization. These evolving systems are so complex that agents within them cannot intend their long term futures. These futures emerge unpredictably from the interactions between agents in conditions of non equilibrium and disorder.

Irregularity and disorder as a systemic property:

Irregularity and disorder may occur due to the nature of the system, i.e. indviduals within the system are allowed to disrupt the institution. This circular feedback nature of choice, action, and outcome can lead to complex connection between cause and effect.

Positive feedback:

Systems dynamicists have demonstrated that non linear and positive feedback loops are fundamental properties of organizational life and that behavioural patterns can emerge without being intended and in fact often emerge contrary to intention, producing unexpected and counter intuitive

Bounded instability (deterministic laws)
Complexity index