The second possible shared specialization is: 
  • Learning:  the ability for a grazer or predator to learn about their food from their parents or by trial and error.  They may learn a number of different things form what food is eatable to how to get the greatest amount of energy from a host or prey.  The more a grazer or predator specifies in food and becomes more parasitic in nature the less likely learning involved in the process.
    • Example:  Vampire bats learn where on the body to bite their hosts


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