||With parasites there are two types of specializations:
- Regional Host Specializations: where specialization occurs through a different number of hosts in different regions. It is also factors in the competition, rates of predation and/or parasitism. The parasites can either be restricted fewer hosts than expected and thus be very coevolved or evolve due to more than one species interacting with the host.
- Example: the lycaenid butterfly attacking on lupine species depending on flowering time, pubescence and alkaloid concentration