With parasites there are two types of specializations: 
  •  Regional Host Specializations:  where specialization occurs through a different number of hosts in different regions.  It is also factors in the competition, rates of predation and/or parasitism.  The parasites can either be restricted fewer hosts than expected and thus be very coevolved or evolve due to more than one species interacting with the host.
    • Example:  the lycaenid butterfly attacking on lupine species depending on flowering time, pubescence and alkaloid concentration


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