Also appearing in the Oligocene to the early Miocene were the more spectacular Giant rhinoceroses, the most impressive of which were the Balucatherium. Balucatherium, also known as Baluchitherium, named after the state in Pakistan where they were first discovered, is the largest known land mammal. This immense mammal stood almost 6m (18 ft.) at the shoulders, and probably weighed more than 18,000 kg (20 tons). The head of this monstrous animal was around 1.5 m (5 ft.) long, but even this would have been disproportionately small compared to the rest of its body. Its head was so high off the ground that it would have browsed off the branches of trees 7.5 m (25 ft.) high.

(Above: A recontructed skeleton of a Balucatherium displayed at the Berkeley museum)
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