Alteration of the Limestone

Cave formation and collapse
Solution development of caves in the older limestones is thought to have occurred along paths of concentrated ground water flow below sea level. Although Bermuda's more accessible caves are invariably collapse features, the existence of solution caves at deeper levels have been confirmed by cave divers.

Cave collapse not only creates secondary caves, but is also responsible for modifying the land-form where the effects of collapse reach the surface. Collapse features, seen as circular topographic depressions (enclosed valleys and ponds), inland cliff faces and minor geological faults, are characteristic of the older parts of Bermuda.