Geosols on Bermuda

In addition to aeolian and marine limestones, there are also geosols on Bermuda. These are soils of earlier land surfaces, which became buried by limestone deposits. They are preserved as underlying layers within the limestones, and have thicknesses in the range of 15cm to one meter. They vary in character from distinct brownish-red clay layers or white or light coloured sandy layers. Informally they are categorized, respectively, as "red" or "white".

"Red", clay geosols or "terra rossa" paleosols comprise accumulations of organic debris from plants, the residue of dissolved limestone and atmospheric dust. They represent long periods (10000's of years) of vegetation growth, uninterrupted by limestone deposition.

"White" geosols are technically known as accretionary geosols or protosols. Their development was related to vegetation growth but their primary constituents, which are fine limestone particles, were transported from coastal beach and dune deposits by the wind. Protosols are thought to represent only short pauses in limestone sand deposition.