The sandy limestone rocks which cap the Bermuda volcanic seamount are predominantly of Pleistocene age (between 10000 and 1.6 million years old). Above sea level they form the islands of Bermuda and below sea level they are blanketed by modern, Holocene (less than 10000 years old) limestone sediments and reefs.

The bulk of the exposed Pleistocene limestones on Bermuda accumulated on the land as aeolian dunes. From their source in the sea, the particles were transported to beaches by currents and waves, and from there were driven landward by the wind. The resultant dunes eventually became the lithified limestone hills.

A minority of Bermuda's exposed Pleistocene limestone are marine, having been deposited by the sea on the coast, such as at beaches, or in relatively shallow water. These marine limestones record various high sea level events of the Pleistocene epoch.